No one was arrested and few details were immediately available.
A representative of Bieber did not immediately return a request for comment.
Online schedules indicate the "Baby" singer is in the midst of a European tour and performed a show in Poland on Monday night.
Authorities were called to the Calabasas scene just after 9 a.m., said Steve Whitmore, spokesman for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.
"There have been allegations made against Mr. Bieber of battery and making threats," Whitmore said.
It's unclear who called authorities, and whether there might have been previous problems between the 19-year-old singer and neighbors, Whitmore said.
The investigation was first reported by TMZ.com.